SCIENTIA MORALITAS - International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research <p style="line-height: 12.6pt; background: white; margin: 0cm 0cm 5.25pt 0cm;"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">SCIENTIA MORALITAS - International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research is an open access, blind peer-reviewed Journal published by the Scientia Moralitas Research Institute. </span></p> <p style="line-height: 12.6pt; background: white; margin: 0cm 0cm 5.25pt 0cm;"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">SCIENTIA MORALITAS is a multidisciplinary journal publishing a wide range of high-quality papers in the field of humanities, education, theology, human rights, economics, philosophy, juridical, political and communication sciences, religion, history, current events, legal and social issues, human behavior and so on. </span></p> <p style="line-height: 12.6pt; background: white; margin: 0cm 0cm 5.25pt 0cm;"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">The Journal is registered with the Library of Congress (DC, USA): </span><a href=""><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">ISSN 2472-5331</span></a><strong><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;"> </span></strong><a href=""><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">(Print)</span></a><a href=""><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;"> ISSN 2472-5358</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;"> (Online) and is published twice a year in both print and online.</span></p> <p style="line-height: 12.6pt; background: white; margin: 0cm 0cm 5.25pt 0cm;"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">SCIENTIA MORALITAS Journal is indexed and abstracted in the following databases/resources: </span><a href=""><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">ERIH PLUS</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">, </span><a href=""><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">RePEc</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">, </span><a href=""><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">CEEOL</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">, </span><a href=";dbcode=SJXA&amp;type=dbpub"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">CNKI</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">, </span><a href=";view_op=list_works&amp;authuser=7&amp;gmla=AJsN-F4PD5a0UrvDxTpJvUaU8BgwB6zOapq3eiipoiwQAc51qZ04D5FStiqGA9eNOwh_9ifBMkjpW2iE8U4FIzJUMihvjXg2n0JcrVHjRxQdRtdDYcAri5ityQ9LKSqQFc0HFIV9pvno&amp;user=pzH6258AAAAJ"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">Google Scholar</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">, </span><a href=""><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">OAJI</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">, </span><a href=""><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">CiteFactor,</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;"> </span><a href=""><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">ResearchBib</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">, </span><a href=";NAME=SCIENTIA%20MORALITAS%20-%20International%20Journal%20of%20Multidisciplinary%20Research"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">Journal Factor</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">, </span><a href=""><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">IIJIF</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">, </span><a href=";referer=brief_results"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #084f91;">WorldCat</span></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Lucida Grande'; color: #666666;">.</span></p> RAIS en-US SCIENTIA MORALITAS - International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research 2472-5331 Editorial We consider that there is no present and there is no future without the past, namely, without history, without knowing the past. Talking about history is both easy and difficult at the same time because history provokes an emotional reaction, a sentimental reaction, especially when it comes to local or national history. A nation that doesn't know its history is like a child that doesn't know his parents. We must focus on the present to build a future, but a future cannot be built if we do not know our past. The past or history is the accumulation of human experiences. People are the same now as they were some time ago, but the contexts are different, and these contexts are extremely important because they form history, from which one can learn. The contexts shall be repeated, without finding two similar contexts in history, and that is why they must be well studied and recorded and well understood, without being interpreted according to certain current needs, and if we understand them, then we can learn lessons from what happened in the past, whether we are talking about political constructions, as we are talking today about the fact that democracy was inspired by Athenian democracy, only that it is not the same democracy, because Athenian democracy excluded women, excluded slaves, encouraged slavery, being a completely different kind of democracy compared to what we understand today. Ioan-Gheorghe Rotaru Copyright (c) 2021 Ioan-Gheorghe Rotaru 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 6 2 ix x Promote Sustainable AI to Limit the Ethical and Technological Futuristic Issues AI as a technology is effective in bringing about much transformations but it cannot be denied that along with the advantages that it is laced up with, there are certain challenges as well. These challenges mostly relate to ethical issues and the concern here is how sustainable is AI or how is the concept of sustainability related to AI. The main objective of the paper is to discuss on the ethical issues of AI in brief and then to figure out as to how the world can move towards sustainable AI technology. The study is needed in this time when across the world there are growing concerns as to how human activities can be sustainable. Sustainability has to be the core issue and with a technology as AI that is being taken as one of the major technologies, there is a need to evaluate it in terms of sustainability. Here the method used is simple and is fully based on reviewing of recent articles, journals and other secondary sources taken from the website Google Scholar. The major finding hints at the fact that sustainable AI is not a new concept and that it is already in its third phase. AI is known to play a versatile role by acting on many different targets across the SDG’s and on different sectors. However, it is important to note that these effects may not always be positive, and that negative impacts are plausible and been recorded. And, in order to develop sustainable AI, there is a need to consider the three aspects that are environment, economy and society. Samah Nassar Copyright (c) 2021 Samah Nassar 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 6 2 1 6 An Assessment of Nigeria’s 2020 #EndSars Protests and a Comparative Analysis with US’s Black Lives Matter Protests A social mobilization effort by the Nigerian youth against police brutality introduced via Twitter in 2017 turned into one of the largest youth protests in October 2020, when the hashtag #EndSars rattled the foundations of Nigeria as a unified nation. While some scholars claim that the protest seems to echo and borrow from the sympathies of the US’s Black Lives Matter movement, another movement against police brutality with a decentralized network of activists which began in July 2013 and also peaked somewhat during the pandemic era of 2020, the #EndSars effect on national security, politics, and socio-economic lives of Nigerians, however, appear deeper and far reaching. This study compared the two movements regarding police brutality, uncovered the nuances of the #EndSars movement, the factors that led to its deeper impact, and lessons to learn from the experience. A survey of Nigerian undergraduate students (youth), was conducted and the data analysed using the social movement theory. Except for the differences in their historical development, the findings from the conduct of the two protests show significant similarities. The student’s survey, in particular, shows that while the respondents support the original demands for a call to action by the #EndSars organizers at 84%, they did not, however, believe the violence and destruction were justifiable (at 59.7%). Also interesting was their response that they believed (at 73% of respondents) that the movement was influenced by US’s Black Lives Matter. Hadiza Isa Wada Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 6 2 7 23 The Personal Duties of the Spouses Under Romanian Law After the marriage is concluded, the man and the woman acquire the status of spouses, which confers on each of the two family members, among other things, a series of personal rights and duties. The study presents and analyzes the main duties (obligations) of the spouses, namely: duty of respect; duty of fidelity; duty of moral support; duty to live together; joint decision making (co-decision) by the spouses; and the names of the spouses during marriage. Also, as will result from this study, according to the legal provisions, each spouse must enjoy full independence as regards his or her personal life. In this respect, each of the spouses will decide on their health, their professional training and the establishment of friendship relations with other persons. KEY WORDS: spouses, personal duties, duty of respect, duty of fidelity, duty of mutual moral support, duty of living together Ciprian Raul Romițan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 6 2 24 40 Counterfeiting of the EU Digital Covid Certificate. Offenses and Penalties for Forgery and Use of False Documents This article focuses on counterfeiting offenses committed by some persons who commit such offenses to conceal the fact that they are not vaccinated or take advantage of those who are not vaccinated and want to procure such documents in exchange for money. In the case of forgery, the social value that criminal law protects is public trust in things that have the legal authority to prove. KEY WORDS: European COVID certificates, criminal concurrence, forgery, use of forgery, public health Nicoleta-Elena Hegheș Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 6 2 41 48 Is Polite Behavior Always Positively Marked? The Role of Sincerity in Politeness in an Arab Context In this paper, polite/politic linguistic behavior, introduced in Locher and Watts (2005) and which may be used insincerely, was investigated at a first order level of kind. The method followed is that of Spencer-Oatey (2011) who examined the emotions and (im)politeness judgements that people recount in metapragmatic comments and interviews. Thus, the participants of this study were invited to show their own perceptions, and evaluations about polite/politic but insincere linguistic behavior of any individuals behaving with them as such in a purely Arabic context. The responses were analyzed quantitatively. One interesting finding was that this kind of insincere polite/politic behavior was negatively marked unlike what was introduced in the diagram of relational work by Locher and Watts (2005) and which was clearly described as positively marked. This study shows that polite/politic behavior in the spectrum of relational work with judgment (c) ignores the fact that insincerity in polite behavior can generate negative markedness and hence can cause relationship breakup, although it is superficially polite and appropriate. KEY WORDS: first and second order politeness, negative markedness of politeness, politeness Cherifa Benkaddour Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 6 2 49 66 Public Service Management in Some States Members of the European Union At a lower hierarchical level, they face the challenge of managing a large workforce from which efficiency and effectiveness are expected. States have responded differently to these challenges, depending on administrative tradition and current political priorities. However, there are common elements in the latest developments identified in civil service management in the member countries. We started from the classical distinction between the two main types of public office. KEY WORDS: democratic regimes, public administration, political affiliation, equitable treatment, civil servants Mihai Dorel Vlad Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 6 2 67 77 The Difficulty of Understanding Complexity and Simplicity in Moral Psychological Description The social intuitionist approach to moral judgments advanced by social psychologist Jonathan Haidt presupposes that it is possible to provide an explanation of the human moral sense without normative implications. By contrast, Iris Murdoch’s philosophical work on moral psychology suggests that every description of morality necessarily involves evaluative features that reveal the thinker’s own moral attitudes and implicit philosophical pictures. In the light of this, we contend that Haidt’s treatment of the story about Julie and Mark, two siblings who decide to have casual, protected, and in his view harmless sex, provides a too simplistic picture of what is involved in understanding human morality. Despite his aim to explain the roots of moral judgments, he fails to provide a deeper understanding of morality in two different respects. First, he does so by suggesting that his story contains all the relevant information needed to take a moral stand on it, and by rejecting as irrelevant the wider human context in which questions about sexual and family relations arise. Second, he simplifies the responses of the people who are subject to his experiment by disregarding their various reasons for disapproving and by equating understanding human morality with explaining an impersonal psychological process. KEY WORDS: understanding, moral psychology, moral description, Iris Murdoch, Jonathan Haidt Camilla Kronqvist Natan Elgabsi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 6 2 78 103 Waiver of Prosecution The institution renouncing the prosecution was a novelty element introduced in the Code of Criminal Procedure, which entered into force on 1 February 2014 for the relief of the criminal courts with various minor cases. Initially, it was provided for the waiver of the prosecution ordered by the prosecutor under the conditions laid down by the law, and subsequently because of the decision of the Constitutional Court No 23/2016 on the admission of the exception of the non-constitutionality of the provisions of Article 318 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, the legislation has been amended to the effect that the order ordering the waiver of criminal proceedings after it has been verified by the superior prosecutor of the prosecution where the measure was ordered is confirmed by the judge of the chamber of first judges who would be responsible to him according to the law, jurisdiction to hear the case at first instance. The judge of the pre-trial chamber may accept or reject the prosecutor’s proposal that the prosecution be dropped, the judge’s conclusion being final and a further waiver can no longer be ordered for any reason. KEY WORDS: prosecution, order, public interest, prosecutor, judge of the pre-trial chamber, suspect or accused Bogdan Buneci Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 6 2 104 119 Communication Difficulties of the Elderly in Case of Receiving Bad News in Old People’s Homes in Romania The elderly is a special category, and communication becomes difficult in terms of bad news. To maintain a good emotional state of the elderly, the specialist will have to appeal to communication skills. Good communication is a condition without which the elderly cannot receive this bad news under normal circumstances. Thus, by communicating well, it is possible for the elderly to ease their emotional state by encouraging them and training them with knowledge and skills to deal with bad news. Correct communication means that the specialist will find a way to make them listen with gentle words. Regardless of the bad news that the elderly person is supposed to receive, the responsibility lies with the person giving the news. It is very important to know that the impact of bad news is equal to the effect they have on the elderly. In conclusion, a practical definition of bad news is: “any news that seriously affects and negative perception of the individual on his future (*** 2012). KEY WORDS: bad news, communication, elderly people, good communication Georgeta Stoica-Marcu Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 6 2 120 126 Unqualified for Knowledge: When Dissent Ruins Everything The art of the world is a mirror of the souls of its people. The art of a specific time is a mirror of the people's souls in those times. This is how the author understands the impressive difference between the contemporary arts and those of the past. The movies of the 21st century, for instance, respond to the momentary needs of the soul of our fellow friends. They shape the inner needs of the viewers by indulging them with violence and many kinds of depravations, which ultimately lead to the loss of wisdom. The paintings also have a vague message, giving the viewer freedom to participate in the cultural act of interpretation with his imagination. This paper attempts to show that we are under attack using the means of the natural affections, and we become therefore weaker spiritually and physically every day. To annihilate this attack, we need to re-learn the discipline of the “excellent ones”, of the “worthies” of the past. Otherwise, our knowledge and judgment will be harmed by our affections and our spiritual values will also suffer accordingly. KEY WORDS: knowledge, epistemology, indulging, contemporary art, affections, excellent ones, affective epistemology Foszto M. Arpad Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 6 2 127 135 Sharpening Perspectives on Character and Virtue in Theological Education Championing the cause of virtue literacy in theological education has often been an exercise in frustration. Though instruction in virtue might seem to have fit most comfortably in theological education, attitudes toward the subject of character in seminaries often have included a significant portion of confusion or conflicting perspectives. Thus, those schools that have intentionally educated for the character have been inclined to approach the process nonspecific or subjective. In spite of a growing body of literature in character development in education, there was still a need for the clarification of what education for virtue and character actually was, and how it was necessary, so that it could be implemented in a more straightforward manner. This paper sought to clarify the current state of character education and the most helpful initiative theorized to implement it. The book Character and Virtue in Theological Education by Marvin Oxenham was used as a primary supporting reference for this investigation. KEY WORDS: character, virtue, theological, education, Oxenham, formation Dwayne Baldwin Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 6 2 136 146 Married Couples’ Perception of Unfaithfulness The postmodern society finds itself now more than ever, under the sign of sexuality, people becoming more and more “open” to everything that implies “sex”. Temptations are more and more explicit both on the level of fashion, makeup, music, and on the level of leisure and holidays. Sex has become so present in our culture that it became a part of the air we breathe in (Weeks 1986, 4). Moral and legal constraints that once made unfaithfulness a sin, shameful or a felony, are now gone. Today's society almost does not constrain you to be faithful, only the love for the spouse being able to do so. KEY WORDS: marital couple, faithfulness, unfaithfulness, sexuality, typologies of unfaithfulness, explanatory theories Ciprian Corneliu Ciurea Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 6 2 147 163 Ethics and Academic Integrity – Conceptual Aspects The present society promotes the individual or of group values. In the academic environment, the axiology – as science of the values – is based on two important pillars: the ethics and the integrity. The applied ethics and the academic integrity are complementary, interdisciplinary in a university environment, capable of elaborating principles, of nominating values and norms staying at the basis of the professors’ conduct and, equally, at the basis of the conduct of the students engaged in the educational process. The main specific concepts of the academic ethics and integrity, including their applying, are important for the didactic and research career, for the moral posture it has always been a central landmark of the professionalism. Key words: integrity, ethics, academic integrity, professional deontology, plagiary Mihai Himcinschi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 6 2 164 190 Communication, Business and Human Rights: The Current Challenges to Freedom of Expression Freedom of expression is a well-established basic right in the context of communication rights, as specified in Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), which states that “everyone has the right to freedom of thought and expression.” Despite the fact that communication has advanced to unprecedented levels throughout the globe, there are still instances in which prohibitions on speech influence communication rights in many nations. This article analyzes reports of international organizations evaluating how freedom of expression is restricted, highlighting how limitations may arise from different kinds of abuses, such as government control over the media, limiting the freedom of information, or imposing laws that criminalize defamation. It also explores how attempts to protect religious and philosophical beliefs, schools of thought, and certain ideologies affect the freedom of expression of the population, certain groups of people, or businesses. It is also important to note how certain kinds of speech restrictions, such as those prohibiting obscenity, fraud, speech that violates intellectual property rights, speeches that encourage imminent lawless action, and others, can help to create a social environment that fosters dignity, respect for the law, and the application of essential moral values in a society. KEY WORDS: freedom of speech, business, communication, human rights Nelu Burcea Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 6 2 191 196 The Moral-Educational Role of Teaching Religion in School The universe is an unbroken abyss and an immense unknown, as God cannot be known in His Being, but His presence and work in our lives can be felt and cultivated through a high knowledge and living of the teaching of faith, through liberation from passions and the practice of Christian virtues. Science offers us a partial truth, while religion opens the horizon of our spiritual perfection, communicating eternal and divine truths concerning man’s life and eternal destiny, which is fulfilled only in God only. It teaches us that “the world and its lust pass away, but he that does the will of God remains forever” (1 John 2:17). KEY WORDS: religion, science, knowledge, Christian learning, morality, spiritual living Vasile Miron Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-26 2021-12-26 6 2 197 208